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Barnes and Noble Reviewer says:

eProof005 9781495821264_Early Interventi

SAMPLE EXERCISES

Basic Expressive Prepositions (2)

Purpose

 

• To teach the child to describe relations involving the simple locatives 'on' and

'under', 'next to', 'behind', and 'in front of'. Relevance of others targeted by employing point.

Set up

 

• A large base object (e.g., chair) and a smaller ambulant object. The child

faces the base object.

Procedure

 

• Step 1: Place the ambulant object (e.g. block) in any position relative to

the base object, (a chair) and ask: “Where is the block?” Prompt correct

answer (“on,” “under,” etc.) and fade prompts over successive trials. (a)

Introduce additional locations one at a time. When introducing a new

location, always randomize it with acquired ones. (b) Vary the ambulant

object. (c) Intersperse expressive and receptive trials.

• Step 2: Introduce additional factual questions such as “What color is the

___?” (see #120), “What color is this?” (while pointing to an object) (see

#122), and questions involving pronominalization (see #144). For instance,

point to the block and ask; “What is it?” When the child answers, move it

to a new location (e.g., under the chair) and ask; “Where is it?

• Step 3: Place two different base objects next to each other and an ambulant

object (e.g., spoon) relative to one of them. Ask: “Where is the spoon?”

Prompt correct answer (e.g., “it is under the chair”) and fade prompts

over successive trials. Place the spoon in another location and repeat the

procedure. Continue until the child discriminates between all locations

with both base objects. When accomplished introduce additional factual

questions (see step 2).

• Step 4: The instructor places two different base objects next to each other

and an ambulant object in each of the possible locations (a total of 10

locations). Asks: “Where is the spoon?” “Where is the cup?” etc. The

child answers using prepositions and location (e.g., it is under the chair”)

and fade prompt over successive trials. When the child scans and answers

fluently, “reverse” the question; “What is [preposition] [location]?’ (e.g.,

“What is on the chair?”). Prompt correct answer (e.g., “a cup” or “the

cup”). Randomize “What” and “Where” questions and fade prompts over

successive trials. When acquired, introduce additional questions unrelated

to prepositions (see step 2).

Considerations

• The child may point to the location of an object in cases when you want the

child to tell you. In such instances, simply ask the child to tell you where

it is. If this becomes a habit, modify your instruction so that you say, “Tell

me where the (object) is.”

 

    Matching, Receptive and Naming

    Purpose

  • To teach the child to shift flexibly between different instructions and modalities. The child will learn to shift between instructions such as “Do this” while pointing to a picture (“Selection-Based Imitation), “find one of these”/find this one” (searching), “What is this?” (“Naming”), and “Point to the ___” (“Receptive Identification”).

    Set up

  • The child is at a desk about six-seven feet away from the wall (or a large board). Place an array of known pictures on the desk and attach corresponding (and non-corresponding) pictures to the wall; place objects corresponding to the instructor’s pictures around the floor.

     Procedure

  • Present one of the following instructions: “Do this”/”find this one” (while pointing to a picture on the wall)”; “What is it? (pointing to a picture on the wall); “point to the ___” [one of the child’s pictures]; “bring me a __[referring to one of the objects on the floor].  An assistant prompts from behind. 

     Considerations

  • Shifting flexibly between different instructions may be challenging to some children.  Difficulties may be compounded if the child has been exposed to extensive “compartmental teaching” (i.e., one kind of ‘program’ at a time)

Who-Questions (3)

Purpose

 

• To establish a rudimentary understanding of the pronoun “Who” in the

context of “Where” and “What”. Use of non-specific referent(s) pulls for social awareness/relevance of others.

 

Set up

 

• Two to three (or more) persons are situated around the room or sit in a

circle. Familiar objects are placed around the room.

• This exercise is a combination of previous exercises

Procedure

 

• Randomize (a) “What is over there?” (b) “Where is the [object]?” (c) “Is the

[object] over there?” (d) “Where is [person]? followed by (e) “What does

she have?” (f) Who has the [object]?” followed by (g) “Where is she?” (h)

“Who is over there?” (i) “Is [person] over there ?” (points), (j) “What did

you give to [person 1 or 2]?” (see “Who Questions (2)”, #160), (k) “Who

did you give the [object]?” (or “Who did you give the object to?”) see “Who

Questions (2)” #160)

• Same arrangement as above. Add the question: “Where is the [object]?”

when someone is holding the object. The child should answer, “[person]

has [it]” rather than “over there.” Randomize questions about objects in

someone’s possession (“[person] has it”) and not in someone’s possession

(“over there”).

Tracking 4 (Two Objects)

Purpose

  • To teach the child to retrieve two objects based on ‘two part pointing’ (“get me this and that”/that one and that one”) as opposed to placing items following a two part point (“Tracking 3, #41)

Set up

  • Place a few items around the room (on the floor). The items should be approximately the same size and easy to pick up and carry. The objects should be two-three feet apart. You should stand in the middle of the room about three feet from the child.

Procedure

  1. Point to one of the objects and say: “get me that”, then point to another and say “and…that”. The child should bring you both objects.

  2. Initially, it may be necessary to separate the two instructions wherein the second instruction is delayed until the child responds to the first. With success, the time between the instructions can be reduced.

Considerations

  • Mastery of two-step object imitation (see # 22) and multi- step instruction (see # 31) should assist in success with this exercise.

  • Mastery of this exercise may facilitate “Tracking 3”  (#41)

  • Eventually,  “give me that and that” should be practiced in conjunction with “put that over there” (placing an object in a location based on two part pointing (see Tracking 3”, #41).  If the child demonstrates persistent confusion with this discrimination, these two exercises should be kept separate at this time.

Naming Colors (5)

Purpose

  • To teach the child to differentiate between object and color

  • To teach the child to shift attention between questions

Setup

  • Display a field of several objects of solid colors

Procedure

  1. Randomly ask the questions: “What color is the [object]?” and “What is [color]?”/“Which one is [color]?” The child learns to shift attention between the two questions.

  2. Introduce the question: “What color is this one?”/”What color is this?” (while pointing to an object)

Considerations

  • Mastery of this exercise may facilitate “Naming Colors 2” (#119)

  • This exercise increases “cognitive load”; shifting attention, tracking, scanning, working memory, switching modalities

   Table of Contents  

Matching

  • Basic Identity Matching

  • Matching Objects to Pictures

  • Bring Same

  • Bring Same: Two Steps

  • Sorting (1)

  • Sorting (2)

  • Touch Same

  • Find Same

Selection-Based Imitation

  •  Selection-Based Imitation (SBI) (1)

  •  Selection-Based Imitation (2)

  •  Selection-Based Imitation: Two Steps

 

Task Completion

  •  Task Completion

  •  Sequential Matching (TPSM)

  •  Following Lists (“shopping”)

  •  Search (1)

  •  Search (match1)

  •  Search (match 2)

Imitation

  • Gross Motor Imitation

  • Fine Motor Imitation

  • Multi-Step Imitation

  • Object Imitation (1)

  • Object Imitation (2)

  • Block Imitation (1)

  • Block Imitation (2)

  • Block Imitation (3)

  • Follow the Leader

  • Verbal Imitation

  • Third Person Imitation

  • Observational Learning

Basic Receptive Language

  • One Step Instructions

  • Two Step Instructions

  • Receptive Object Identification

  • 2-D Object Identification

  • Receptive Person Identification

  • Receptive Body Parts Identification

  • Bring Me

  • Receptive Block Building

  • Two-Step Receptive Objects

 

Tracking/Joint Attention

  • Tracking 1

  • Tracking 2 (Direct Point)

  • Tracking 3 (Object Location)

  • Tracking 4 (Two Objects)

  • Tracking 5 (Go to Location)

  • Tracking 6 (Combined Tracking and Receptive)

  • Tracking 7 (Alternated Tracking and Receptive)

  • Shifting Between Instruction Modalities

 

 Naming and requesting

  •  Expressive Naming (Objects)

  •  Expressive Naming 2 (Body Parts)

  •  Expressive Naming 3 (Persons)

  •  Expressive Naming: Multiple Presentation Forms

  •  Tracking and Orienting

  •  Sequential Naming

  •  Self-Paced Naming

  •  Naming through Observational Learning

  •  Requesting Desired Objects and Activities

  •  Sequential Matching: Interrupted chain

  •  Blocked Response (Instruction)

  •  Requesting from second person

  •  Managing Listener’s Responses

 

Integrating basic learning skills

  •  Naming to Requesting (contrived)

  •  Requesting to Naming

  •  Receptive-Expressive Correspondence

  •  Receptive to Requesting

  •  Matching, Receptive, and Naming

  •  Say versus Do (1)

  •  Say versus Do (2)

  •  Naming by Exclusion

  •  Tracking/Naming Hybrid

  •  Retrieving by Name and Tracking-combined

 

Expanding basic naming

  •  Receptive Locations

  •  Receptive Locations and Action

  •  Naming Stationary Objects

  •  Naming locations

  •  Reporting locations (1)

  •  Reporting locations (2)

  •  Declaring destination (1)

  •  Declaring destination (2)

 

 Actions

  •  Expressive Actions (1): Following an Instruction

  •  Expressive Actions (2): Following a Model

  •  Expressive Actions (3)

  •  Progressive Actions (1)

  •  Progressive Actions (2)

  •  Past Tense Actions (1): Following Instructions

  •  Past Tense Actions (2): Following a model

  •  Past Tense Actions (3): Location and action

  •  Tense Discrimination

  •  Tense Discrimination of Progressive Actions

  •  Tense Discrimination: Reporting observations

 

 Functions

  • Functions of Objects: Problem Solving by Tool Use

  • Functions of Objects (Demonstration)

  • Functions of Objects: Receptive (1)

  • Functions of Objects: Receptive (2)

  • Functions of Objects: Naming (1)

  • Functions of Objects: Naming (2)

  • Functions of Objects: Multiple Examples

  • Function of objects: Answering Questions (1)

  • Function of Objects: Answering Questions (2)

 

 Parts and Whole

  • Receptive Identification of Parts

  • Distinguishing between Parts and Whole

  • Part-whole association (1)

  • Part-whole association (2)

  •  Listing parts


 

 

Naming by Different Modalities

  • Naming by Touch

  • Naming by Taste

  • Distinguishing between Salty, Sweet, Sour

  • Naming and Identifying Objects By Sound

  • Naming by inference (Object Permanence)

  • Locating by Inference

 

Transactions and Turn taking

  • Turn Taking: Ball Play

  • Turn taking: Delivery

  • Turn Taking: Matching game

  • Reciprocal statements 1

  • Reciprocal statements

Colors and Shapes

  • Matching colors

  • Receptive Color Identification

  • Receptive Colors: Conditional discrimination

  • Receptive Colors: “That” Constructions

  • Naming colors (1)

  • Naming colors (2)

  • Naming colors (3)

  • Naming colors (4)

  • Naming colors (5)

  • Naming colors (6)

  • Naming colors (7)

  • Sorting shapes

  • Receptive and expressive shapes

Big and Little

  • Receptive Big-Little (Identical)

  • Receptive Big-Little (Non-identical)

  • Receptive big-little (Conditional discrimination)

  • Receptive big-little: Name and Feature

  • Expressive Big-Little (1)

  • Expressive Big-Little (2)

 

Singular-Plural

  • Singular-plural (1)

  • Singular-plural (2)

  • Singular-plural (3)

  • Singular-plural (4)

Answering factual questions

  • Yes-No: Desires

  • Yes-No: Interrupted chain

  • Yes-No: Factual Questions (1)

  • Yes-No: Factual Questions (2)

  • Yes-No: Factual Questions (3)

  • Yes-No: Factual Questions (4)

  • Yes-No: Factual Questions (5)

  • Yes-No: Correcting Statements

 

Who What Where Distinctions

  • Where: Deixis (1)

  • Where: Deixis (2)

  • Where: Multiple scenarios

  • What/Where distinction (1)

  • What/where distinction (2)

  • Who questions (1)

  • Who questions (2)

  • Who questions (3)

  • Expressive: Who-What

 

Complex receptive instructions

  • Three component instructions (1)

  • Three component instructions (2)

  • Three step instructions

  • Basic Rule Following

  • Demonstratives

  • Demonstratives (1)

  • Demonstratives (2)

  • Demonstratives: Matching (1)

  • Demonstratives: Matching (2)

 

Negation

  • Receptive Negation (1)

  • Receptive Negation (2)

  • Expressive Negation (1)

  • Expressive Negation (2)

  • What’s Missing? (1)

  • What’s Missing? (2)

 

Categorization

  • Receptive categorization

  • Naming Categories (1)

  • Naming Categories (2)

  • Reciprocal categories

  • Describing Kinds

  • Sorting Category Items

Prepositions

  • Basic Receptive Prepositions (1)

  • Basic Expressive Prepositions (1)

  • Basic Receptive Prepositions (2)

  • Basic Expressive Prepositions (2)

  • Self Referential “Behind” and “In Front Of”

  • Self Positioning

  • Behind and “in front of” of Others

  • Front and back; Aspects of Objects

  • Object Relative “In Front/behind

  • Asking “Where” questions

 

Personal pronouns

  • Genitive Personal Pronouns (1)

  • Genitive Personal Pronouns (2)

  • Genitive personal pronouns (3)

  • Nominal personal pronouns (1)

  • Nominal personal pronouns (2)

  • Nominal personal pronouns (3)

  • Nominal personal pronouns (4): Shifting Speakers

  • Nominal personal pronouns (5)

  • Combining Nominal and Genitive Personal Pronouns

  • Assigning Pronouns to Pictures of Persons (1)

  • Assigning pronouns to Pictures of Persons (2)

  • Assigning pronouns to Pictures of Persons (3)

  • Pronouns Combined with Yes-No

  • Personal Pronouns: Turn Taking (1)

  • Personal Pronouns: Turn Taking (2)

  • Personal Pronouns: Turn taking (3)

  • Personal Pronouns: Turn taking (4)