The exercises in Early Intervention for Children with ASD: Considerations bring to light some general principles in early behavioral intervention for children with ASD. We illuminate analysis and synthesis and illustrate how exercises can be employed to teach foundational capacities such as attention and memory. We stress the importance of 'intrinsic program coherence' as we adumbrate different kinds of relations between individual programs. The selective array of programs and considerations is designed to assist clinicians in curriculum development.
Basic Expressive Prepositions (2)
• To teach the child describe relations involving the simple locatives on and
under, next to, behind, and in front of.
• A large base object (e.g., chair) and a smaller ambulant object. The child
faces the base object.
• Step 1: Place the ambulant object (e.g. block) in any position relative to
the base object, (a chair) and ask: “Where is the block?” Prompt correct
answer (“on,” “under,” etc.) and fade prompts over successive trials. (a)
Introduce additional locations one at a time. When introducing a new
location, always randomize it with acquired ones. (b) Vary the ambulant
object. (c) Intersperse expressive and receptive trials.
• Step 2: Introduce additional factual questions such as “What color is the
___?” (see #120), “What color is this?” (while pointing to an object) (see
#122), and questions involving pronominalization (see #144). For instance,
point to the block and ask; “What is it?” When the child answers, move it
to a new location (e.g., under the chair) and ask; “Where is it?
• Step 3: Place two different base objects next to each other and an ambulant
object (e.g., spoon) relative to one of them. Ask: “Where is the spoon?”
Prompt correct answer (e.g., “it is under the chair”) and fade prompts
over successive trials. Place the spoon in another location and repeat the
procedure. Continue until the child discriminates between all locations
with both base objects. When accomplished introduce additional factual
questions (see step 2).
• Step 4: The instructor places two different base objects next to each other
and an ambulant object in each of the possible locations (a total of 10
locations). Asks: “Where is the spoon?” “Where is the cup?” etc. The
child answers using prepositions and location (e.g., it is under the chair”)
and fade prompt over successive trials. When the child scans and answers
fluently, “reverse” the question; “What is [preposition] [location]?’ (e.g.,
“What is on the chair?”). Prompt correct answer (e.g., “a cup” or “the
cup”). Randomize “What” and “Where” questions and fade prompts over
successive trials. When acquired, introduce additional questions unrelated
to prepositions (see step 2).
• The child may point to the location of an object in cases when you want the
child to tell you. In such instances, simply ask the child to tell you where
it is. If this becomes a habit, modify your instruction so that you say, “Tell
me where the (object) is.”
Nominal Pronouns (4): Shifting speakers
To teach the child to use nominative pronouns “I” and “You”, combined with proper names
Three or more persons required
Have the child hold an object (e.g. cup) and you and an assistant each hold different objects. You and the assistant rotate asking.
Step one: You and assistant rotate asking, “Who has the “X” (e.g. cup) vs “Who has “Y” (e.g. ball), “Who has “Z” (e.g. spoon). When you ask questions regarding the assistant, the child refers to her by name. When you are the spectator and the assistant is asking questions ,the child will refer to you by your proper name and the assistant as “you”. Of course the child always refers to themselves as “I” and when you are asking to “you” as “you".
Step two: You or assistant ask the child “What do you have” , “What do I have”, “What does (person/proper name have?)”.
Prompt correct responses according to who is in possession of each object, i.e, I have the X or You have Y, ‘Proper name’ (Sally) has Z . This is more difficult than step one because if requires transforming the pronoun.
Make sure to change what each of you is holding so that the child will not memorize responses.
This exercise is not only matter of answering questions. It entails personal deixis; the right answer depends on who is asking. The primary goal is to teach the child to say “you” when the speaker asks the child what the speaker is holding, to say “I” when the speakers asks about what the child is holding and to use a proper name when the child is asked about what any other person is holding (if that person is not the speaker). This discrimination requires considerable practice.
If the child struggles with these arrangements, segment instruction into smaller ‘switched’ sequences as described in step 3 of Assigning Pronouns to Pictures of Persons 1.
• To establish a rudimentary understanding of the pronoun “Who” in the
context of “Where” and “What.”
• Two to three (or more) persons are situated around the room or sit in a
circle. Familiar objects are placed around the room.
• This exercise is a combination of previous exercises
• Randomize (a) “What is over there?” (b) “Where is the [object]?” (c) “Is the
[object] over there?” (d) “Where is [person]? followed by (e) “What does
she have?” (f) Who has the [object]?” followed by (g) “Where is she?” (h)
“Who is over there?” (i) “Is [person] over there ?” (points), (j) “What did
you give to [person 1 or 2]?” (see “Who Questions (2)”, #160), (k) “Who
did you give the [object]?” (or “Who did you give the object to?”) see “Who
Questions (2)” #160)
• Same arrangement as above. Add the question: “Where is the [object]?”
when someone is holding the object. The child should answer, “[person]
has [it]” rather than “over there.” Randomize questions about objects in
someone’s possession (“[person] has it”) and not in someone’s possession
Selection-Based Imitation (2)
To further develop pointing, flexible shift of attention, joint attention, and tracking.
A direct extension of “Selection-Based Imitation 1” (#9)
This version of SBI controls for the problem of positional prompts.
Sit directly across the child at the table. Have an row of pictures in front of you and a row of corresponding pictures in front of the child. Arrange the field so the pictures no longer correspond by position within the rows. The rows may be arranged so both are oriented toward the child (see Figure 1.2).
Say “do this” and point to a picture displayed in the array in front of you. The child then points to the matching picture in front of him.
The child may copy the position of your finger as opposed finding the target picture (e.g., if you point to the far left picture. He may do the same whether the pictures match or not, or he may first point to the picture corresponding to the position of the your finger and then switch to the correct picture. To address these problems you could, (a) scale back to two pictures and increase the field size when the child performs proficiently, (b) block the child’s response to permit sufficient scanning time. (For instance, the child’s effort may be blocked until he observes your response and shifts attention to his own array) and (c) interrupt “position pointing” and introduce a new trial after a brief delay (two, three seconds).